Publications‎ > ‎



  1. Ratil Hasnat Ashique, Zainal Salam, “A High Gain High Efficiency Non-isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter with Sustained ZVS Operation”, IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, 2018 (Article in Press). (ISI Indexed Publication)
  2. Abdul Rauf Bhatti, Zainal Salam, “A Rule-Based Energy Management Scheme for Uninterrupted Electric Vehicles Charging at Constant Price Using Photovoltaic-Grid System”, Renewable Energy, 2018 (Article in Press). (ISI Indexed Publication)
  3. Jubaer Ahmed, Zainal Salam, “An Enhanced Adaptive P&O MPPT for Fast and Efficient Tracking under Varying Environment Conditions”, IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 2018 (Article in Press). (ISI Indexed Publication)
  4. M. S. Arif, S. M. Ayob, Z. Salam, “Asymmetrical Nine-Level Inverter Topology with Reduce Power Semicondutor Devices”, Telkomnika, 2018 (Article in Press). (SCOPUS Indexed Publication)


  1. J. Ahmed, Z. Salam, “An Accurate Method for MPPT to Detect the Partial Shading Occurrence in PV System", IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, Vol.13, No. 5, Oct 2017, pp. 2151-2161. 
    (ISI Indexed Publication)
  2. J. Vun, Z. Salam, K. Ishaque " An Accurate and Fast Computational Algorithm for the Two-diode Model of PV Module Based on Hybrid Method”, IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, Vol 64, Issue 8 (2017), pp. 6212-6222. 
    (ISI Indexed Publication)
  3. A. Maged, Z. Salam, A. M. Amjad, “Harmonics Elimination PWM Based Direct Control for 23-level Multilevel Distribution STATCOM Using Differential Evolution Algorithm”, Electric Power Systems Research, 152(2017), pp. 48-60. (ISI Indexed Publication)
  4. Ratil Ishaque, Zainal Salam, “A Family of True Zero Voltage Zero Current Switching (ZVZCS) Non-isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter with Wide Soft Switching Range”, IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 64, Issue 7, July 2017, pp. 5416-5427. (ISI Indexed Publication)
  5. Ratil H. Ashique, Zainal Salam, Mohd Junaidi Bin Abdul Aziz, Abdul Rauf Bhatti, “Integrated photovoltaic-grid dc fast charging system for electric vehicle: A review of the architecture and control, Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 69(2017), pp. 1243–1257. (ISI Indexed Publication)
  6. Veeramuthu Ashokkumar, Mohd Razman Salim, Zainal Salam, Pandiyan Sivakumar, Cheng Tung Chong, S. Elumalai, Veeraperumal Suresh, Farid Nasir Ani, “Production of liquid biofuels (biodiesel and bioethanol) from brown marine macroalgae Padina tetrastromatica”, Energy Conversion and Management, 67(2017), pp. 876-891. DOI/10.1016/j.enconman.2016.12.054. (ISI Indexed Publication)
  7. Nur Juzaili, A. Rahman, Z. Salam, S. Shaari, “Performance Degradation of Photovoltaic Power System: Review on Mitigation Methods” Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 135(2017), pp. 351-361. (ISI Indexed Publication)


  1. Jubaer Ahmed, Zainal Salam, ”A Modified P&O Maximum Power Point Tracking Method with Reduced Steady State Oscillation and Improved Tracking Efficiency”, IEEE Transaction on Sustainable Energy, Vol. 7, Issue 4 (2016), pp. 1506-1515, ISSN: 1949-3029, DOI: 10.1109/TSTE.2016.2568043. (ISI Indexed Publication)
  2. J. Vun, Z. Salam, K. Ishaque, "An Accurate Modelling of the two-diode Model of PV Module using a Hybrid Solution based on Differential Evolution", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 124 (2016), pp. 42-50, ISSN: 0196-8904, DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2016.06.076.(ISI Indexed Publication)
  3. M. Mokhtari, Z. Abdul-Malek, Z. Salam, "The Effect of Soil Ionization on Transient Grounding Electrode Resistance in Non-Homogeneous Soil Conditions", International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems, Vol. 26, Issue 7 (2016), pp. 1462–1475, ISSN: 2050-7038, DOI: 10.1002/etep.2157. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  4. Abdul Rauf Bhatti, Zainal Salam, Mohd Junaidi Bin Abdul Aziz and Kong Pui Yee, “A critical Review of Electric Vehicle Charging using Solar Photovoltaic”, International Journal of Energy Research, Vol. 40, Issue 4 (2016), pp. 439–461, ISSN: 0363-907X, DOI: 10.1002/er.3472. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  5. R. Bhatti, Z. Salam, J. Aziz, K.P Yee, Kong, R. Hasnat Ashique, “Electric Vehicles Charging Using Photovoltaic: Status and Technological Review”, Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 54 (2016), pp. 34–47, ISSN: 1364-0321, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2015.09.091. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  6. M. S. Arif, S. M. Ayob, Z. Salam,” Review on the Decomposed Fuzzy PID structure for Power Inverter Regulation”, Jurnal Teknologi, 78:7 (2016), pp. 35–42, eISSN 2180–3722. (SCOPUS Indexed Publication) 
  7. Abdul Rauf Bhatti, Zainal Salam, Mohd Junaidi Bin Abdul Aziz, Kong Pui Yee, “A Comprehensive Overview of Electric Vehicle Charging using Renewable Energy”, International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive Systems (IJPEDS), Vol. 7, No. 1, March 2016, pp. 114-123, ISSN: 2088-8694, DOI: 10.11591/ijpeds.v7.i1.pp114-123. (SCOPUS Indexed Publication)  
  8. Abdul Rauf Bhatti, Zainal Salam, Ratil H. Ashique, “Electric Vehicle Charging Using Photovoltaic based Microgrid for Remote Islands”, Energy Procedia (2016) 000–000. (SCOPUS Indexed Publication)  
  9. C. Y. Lau, C. K. Gan, Z. Salam, M. F. Sulaima, “Impact of solar PV system on transformer onload tap changer (OLTC) in LV distribution network", Energy Procedia (2016) 000–000. (SCOPUS Indexed Publication)


  1. Sk Moin, Z. Salam, H. Abu-Rub, “An Improved Space Vector Modulation for a Three-toSeven-Phase Matrix Converter With Reduced Number of Switching Vectors”, IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 62, Issue 6 (2015), pp. 3327-3337, ISSN: 02780046, DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2014.2381158. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  2. M. Mokhtari, Z. Abdul-Malek, Z. Salam, “An Improved Circuit-Based Model of a Grounding Electrod by Considering the Current Rate of Rise and Soil Ionization Factors”, IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Vol. 30, Issue 1, pp. 211-219, ISSN: 0885-8977, DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2014.2347283. (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  3. Sk Moin, H. Abu-Rub, Z. Salam “Common-mode Voltage Elimination in a Three-to-Five Phase Dual Matrix Converter Feeding a Five Phase Open-end Drive Using Space Vector Modulation Technique”, IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 6, Issue 10, pp 6051-6063, ISSN: 0278-0046, DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2015.2420038. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  4. J. Ahmed, Z. Salam, “An Improved Method to Predict the Positions of Maximum Power Point during Partial Shading for PV Arrays” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, Vol. 11, Issue 6 (2015), pp. 1138-1387, ISSN: 1551-3203, DOI: 10.1109/TII.2015.2489579. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  5. Veeramuthu Ashokkumar, Zainal Salam, Farid Nasir "An integrated approach for biodiesel and bioethanol production from Scenedesmus bijugatus cultivated in a vertical tubular photobioreactor",Energy Conversion and Management, 101 (2015), pp. 778–786, ISSN: 0196-8904, DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2015.06.006. (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  6. Makbul A.M. Ramli, Kashif Ishaque, Faizan Jawaid, Yusuf A. Al-Turki, Zainal Salam, “A modified differential evolution based maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic system under partial shading condition” Energy and Buildings, 103(2015), pp 175-184, ISSN: 03787788, DOI: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.06.058. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  7. N. Shannan, Z. Yahaya, B. Singh, Z. Salam, “Two-diode model for parameters extraction of photovoltaic module under temperature variation”, IEICE Electronics Express (ELEX), Vol. 12, Issue. 19 (2015), ISSN: 1349-2543, DOI: 10.1587/elex.12.20150492. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  8. J. Ahmed, Z. Salam, “A Critical Evaluation on Maximum Power Point Tracking Mitigation Methods for Partial Shading in PV Systems”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 47(2015), pp. 933–953, ISSN: 1364-0321, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2015.03.080. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  9. Abdul Moeed Amjad, Zainal Salam, Ahmed Maged, “Application of Differential Evolution for Cascaded Multilevel VSI with Harmonics Elimination PWM Switching”, International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 64 (2015), pp. 447-456, ISSN: 0142-0615, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijepes.2014.07.023. (ISI Indexed Publication)
  10. F. Naim, S.M. Ayob, Z. Salam, M Saad Arif, “Pertubative Methods for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems: A Review”, International Journal of Energy Research, Vol. 39, Issue 9 (2015), pp. 1153–1178, ISSN: 0363-907X, DOI: 10.1002/er.3289. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  11. Palanivel Sathishkumar, Mani Arulkumar, Veeramuthu Ashokkumar, Abdull Rahim Mohd Yusoff, Kumarasamy Murugesan, Thayumanavan Palvannan, Zainal Salam, Farid Nasir, Anicand Tony Hadibarata, “Modified phyto-waste Terminalia catappa fruit shells: A reusable adsorbent for the removal of micropollutant diclofenac”, RSC Advances, Vol. 5, Issue 39 (2015), pp. 30950-30962, ISSN: 2046-2069, DOI: 10.1039/c4ra11786g. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  12. J. Ahmed, Z. Salam, “An Improved Perturb and Observe (P&O) Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Algorithm for Higher Efficiency”, Applied Energy, Vol. 150 (2015), pp. 97– 108, ISSN: 0306-2619, DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.04.006. (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  13. Veeramuthu Ashokkumar, Zainal Salam, Palanivel Sathishkumar, Tony Hadibarata, Abdull Rahim Mohd Yusoff, Farid Nasir Ani, ”Exploration of fast growing Botryococcus sudeticus for upstream and downstream process in sustainable biofuels production" Journal of Cleaner Production, 92 (2015) 162-167, ISSN: 0959-6526, DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.01.004. (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  14. J. Vun, Z. Salam, K. Ishaque, "Cell Modelling and Model Parameters Estimation Techniques for Photovoltaic Simulator Application: A Review", Applied Energy, 154 (2015), pp. 500–519, ISSN: 0306-2619, DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.05.035. (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  15. Muhammad Abu Bakar Sidik, Hamizah Binti Shahroom, Zainal Salam, Zainuddin Nawawi, Hussein Ahmad, Muhammad Irfan Jambak, Yanuar Zulardiansyah Arief, Zokafle Buntat, “Lightning Monitoring System for Sustainable Energy Supply: A Review", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 48 (2015), pp. 710–725, ISSN: 1364-0321, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2015.04.045. (ISI Indexed Publication)
  16. Zainal Salam, Ahmed Saif, Moeed Amjad, “Design and Implementation of Fifteen Level Cascaded MVSI with Harmonics Elimination PWM Using Differential Evolution Method” IET Power Electronics, Vol. 8, Issue 9 (2015), pp. 1740-1748, ISSN: 1755-4535, DOI: 10.1049/ietpel.2014.0482. (ISI Indexed Publication)
  17. Z. Salam, Z. Ramli, J. Ahmed, M. Amjad, "Partial Shading in Building Integrated PV System: Causes, Effects and Mitigating Techniques", International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive Systems (IJPEDS), Vol. 6, No. 4, Dec. 2015, pp. 712-722, ISSN: 2088-8694. (SCOPUS Indexed Publication)   


  1. Veeramuthu Ashokkumar, Elango  Agila, Zainal Salam, Pandiyan Sivakumar, Ramasamy Rengasamy, Farid Nasir Ani,“Optimization and characterization of biodiesel production from microalgae Botryococcus grown at semi-continuous system”, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 88 (2014), pp. 936–946, ISSN: 0196-8904, DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2014.09.019. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  2. Veeramuthu Ashokkumar, Elango  Agila, Zainal Salam, Mohanadoss Ponra, Mohd Fadhil Md Din,  Farid Nasir Ani, “A study on large scale cultivation of Microcystis aeruginosa under open raceway pond at semi-continuous mode for biodiesel production” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 172 (2014), pp. 186–193, ISSN: 0960-8524, DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.08.100. (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  3. M. Amjad, Z. Salam, “Design and implementation of a high-frequency LC-based half-bridge resonant converter for dielectric barrier discharge ozone generator”, IET Power Electronics, Vol. 7, Issue. 9 (2014), pp. 2403–2411, ISSN: 1755-4535, DOI: 10.1049/iet-pel.2013.0511. (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  4. Ramli, Z., Salam, Z, “A Simple Energy Recovery Scheme to Maximize Photovoltaic Output Power During Partial Shading Condition”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 29, Issue 12, Dec 2014, pp. 6458-6471, ISSN: 0885-8993, DOI: 10.1109/TPEL.2014.2302007. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  5. Saad Mekhilef, Meghdad Barimani, Azadeh Safari, Zainal Salam, “Malaysia's renewable energy policies and programs with green aspects”, Renewable & Sustainable Energy Review, Vol. 40 (2014), pp. 497-504, ISSN: 1364-0321, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.07.095. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  6. Z. Salam, M. Facta M. Amjad , “Dielectric Barrier Discharge Ozonizer Using the Transformerless Single Switch Resonant Converter for Portable Applications ”, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 50, No. 3, May 2014, pp. 2197-2206, ISSN: 00939994, DOI: 10.1109/TIA.2013.2282493. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  7. M. Amjad, Z. Salam, K. Ishaque, “A Model Parameter Extraction Method for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Ozone Chamber using Differential Evolution”, Measurement Science Review, Vol. 14 (2014), No. 2, pp. 78-86, ISSN: 1335-8871, DOI: 10.2478/msr-2014-0011. (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  8. N. A. M. Jamail, M. A. M. Piah, N. A. Muhamad, Z. Salam, N. F Kasri, R. A. Zainir and Q. E. Kamarudin, "Effect of Nanofillers on the Polarization and Depolarization Current Characteristics of New LLDPE-NR Compound for High Voltage Application," Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 2014, Article ID: 416420, pp 1-7, ISSN: 1687-8434, DOI: 10.1155/2014/416420. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  9. Abdul Moeed Amjad, Zainal Salam, “A Review of Soft Computing Methods for Harmonics Elimination PWM for Inverters in Renewable Energy Conversion Systems", Renewable & Sustainable Energy Review, 33 (2014), pp. 141–153, ISSN: 1364-0321, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.01.080. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  10. J. Ahmed, Z. Salam, “A Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) for PV system Using Cuckoo Search with Partial Shading Capability”, Applied Energy, Vol. 119 (2014), pp. 118-130, ISSN: 0306-2619, DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.12.062. (ISI Indexed Publication)
  11. Kashif Ishaque, Z. Salam, “The Performance of Perturb & Observe and Incremental Conductance Maximum Power Point Method under Dynamic Weather Condition”, Applied Energy, Vol. 119 (2014), pp. 228-236, ISSN: 0306-2619, DOI:10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.12.054. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  12. Muhammad Amjad, Zainal Salam, “Analysis, Design and Implementation of Multiple Parallel Ozone Chambers for High Flow Rate”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 61, No. 2, Feb 2014, pp. 753-765, ISSN: 0278-0046, DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2013.2251733. (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  13. M. Facta, Z. Salam, Z. Buntat, " A New Type of Planar Chamber for High Frequency Ozone Generator System” Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 896 (2014) pp 726-729. (SCOPUS Indexed Publication)
  14. Nor Akmal, N.A  Mohamed, A.M. Piah, Z. Salam, “ Effects of nonofillers on the polarization and depolarization current characteristics of LLDPE-NR compound for High Voltage Application” International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, IJRET (2014), Vol. 02 Issue 08. (Non-Indexed Publication)


  1. Z. Salam, M. Facta, M. Amjad, “Design and Implementation of a Low Cost, High Yield DBD Ozone Generator Based on the Single Switch Resonant Converter”, IET Power Electronics, Vol. 6, Issue 8 (2013), 1583–1591, ISSN: 1755-4535, DOI: 10.1049/iet-pel.2012.0470. (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  2. Mohammad Faridun Naim Tajuddin, Shahrin Md Ayob, Zainal Salam, Mohd Sazli Saad, “Evolutionary based maximum power point tracing technique using Differential Evolution Algorithm", Energy and Building, Vol. 67 (2013), pp. 245–252, ISSN: 0378-7788, DOI: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.07.085. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  3. Muhammad Abu Bakar Sidik, Hussein Ahmad, Zainal Salam, Zolkafle Buntat, Ong Lai Mun, Nouruddeen Bashir, Zainuddin Nawawi, “Study on the effectiveness of lightning rod tips in capturing lightning leaders”, Electrical Engineering, Springer-Verlag Berlin, Vol 95. No. 4 (2013), pp. 367–381, ISSN: 0948-7921, DOI: 10.1007/s00202-012-0270-6. (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  4. M. Amjad, Z. Salam, M. Facta, and S. Mekhilef, "Analysis and Implementation of Transformerless LCL Resonant Power Supply for Ozone Generation," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 650-660, Feb. 2013, ISSN: 0885-8993, DOI: 10.1109/TPEL.2012.2202130. (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  5. Kashif Ishaque, Zainal Salam, “A Review of Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for PV System for Uniform Insolation and Partial Shadings Conditions”, Renewable & Sustainable Energy Review, Vol. 19 (2013), pp. 475-488, ISSN: 1364-0321, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2012.11.032. (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  6. S. Mekhilef N. Abdul Kadir and Z. Salam, “Digital Control of Three phase three-stage hybrid Multilevel Inverter" IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 719-727, May 2013, ISSN: 1551-3203, DOI: 10.1109/TII.2012.2223669. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  7. Z. Salam, S.Y. Soon, Y. Saleem, “On the improved computational speed and convergence of the Newton Raphson iteration method for selective harmonics elimination PWM applied to cascaded multilevel inverter with equal and non-equal DC sources”, The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, COMPEL, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2013,  pp. 901-922, ISSN: 0332-1649, DOI: 10.1108/03321641311305827. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  8. Mekhilef S, Faramarzi S.Z, Saidur R, Zainal Salam, “The application of solar technologies for sustainable development of Agricultural Sector”,  Renewable & Sustainable Energy Review, Vol. 8 (2013), pp. 583-594, ISSN: 1364-0321, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2012.10.049. (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  9. Z. Salam, J. Ahmed, B. S. Merugu, “The Application of Soft Computing Methods for MPPT of PV System: A Technological and Status Review”, Applied Energy, Vol. 107, July 2013, pp. 135148, ISSN: 0306-2619, DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.02.008. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  10. Kashif Ishaque, Zainal Salam, “A Deterministic Particle Swarm Optimization Maximum Power Point Tracker for Photovoltaic System under Partial Shading Condition", IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 60, No. 8, Aug. 2013, pp. 3195-3206, ISSN: 0278-0046, DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2012.2200223. (ISI Indexed Publication)
  11. Sk Moin Ahmed, Haitham Abu-Rub, Zainal Salam, “Carrier Based Pulse Width Modulation Control of a Non-Square Direct Matrix Converter with Seven-phase Input and Three-phase Output”, International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive Systems (IJPEDS), Vol. 3, No. 3, Sept. 2013, pp. 344-350; ISSN: 2088-8694. (SCOPUS Indexed Publication)  
  12. Mochammad Facta, Tole Sutikno, Zainal Salam, “The Application of FPGA in PWM Controlled Resonant Converter for an Ozone Generator’, International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive System (IJPEDS), Vol. 3, No. 3, September 2013, pp. 336-343; ISSN: 2088-8694. (SCOPUS Indexed Publication)
  13. Abdul Rauf Bhatti, Abdul Ghafoor Bhatti, Rehan Liaqat, Saima Noreen, Erum Rehman and Zainal Salam, “Selection of Power System on the Basis of Best Combination ofPower Source and Busbar Scheme”, International Journal of Electrical and Electronics, Photon 118 (2013) 160-165. (Non-Indexed Publication)       


  1. Amin Mirzaei, Awang Jusoh, Zainal Salam, “Design and implementation of high efficiency non-isolated bidirectional zero voltage transition pulse width modulated DC-DC converters”, Energy, Vol. 47, No. 1, Nov 2012, pp. 358-369, ISSN: 0360-5442, DOI: 10.1016/ (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  2. Fazel Taeed, Zainal Salam, Shahrin Md Ayob,  “FPGA Implementation of a Single Input Fuzzy Logic Controller for Boost Converter with the Absence of an External Analog to Digital Converter” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 59, No. 2, Feb. 2012, pp. 12081217, ISSN: 0278-0046, DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2011.2161250. (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  3. K. Ishaque, Z. Salam, M. Amjad, and S. Mekhilef, "An Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-Based MPPT for PV with Reduced Steady-State Oscillation", IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 27, No. 8, Aug. 2012, pp. 3627-3638, ISSN: 0885-8993, DOI: 10.1109/TPEL.2012.2185713. (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  4. Muhammad Amjad, Zainal Salam, M. Facta, Kashif Ishaque, “A Simple and Effective Method to Estimate the Model Parameters of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Ozone Chamber” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurements, Vol. 61, No. 6, June 2012, pp. 16761683, ISSN: 0018-9456, DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2012.2188351. (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  5. M. Amjad, Z. Salam, M. Facta, and K. Ishaque, "Design and Development of a High-Voltage Transformer-less Power Supply for Ozone Generators Based on a Voltage-fed Full Bridge Resonant Inverter," Journal of Power Electronics, Vol. 12, No. 3, May 2012, pp. 387-398, ISSN: 1598-2092, DOI: 10.6113/JPE.2012.12.3.387. (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  6. Kashif Ishaque, Zainal Salam, Saad Mekhilef and Amir Shamsudin, “Parameter Extraction of Photovoltaic Modules Using Penalty Based Differential Evolution”, Applied Energy, Vol. 99 (2012), pp. 297–308, ISSN: 0306-2619, DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.05.017. (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  7. Kashif Ishaque and Zainal Salam, “A direct control based maximum power point tracking method for photovoltaic system under partial shading conditions using particle swarm optimization algorithm”, Applied Energy, Vol. 99 (2012), pp. 414–422, ISSN: 0306-2619, DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.05.026. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  8. Shahrin Md Ayob, Zainal Salam, Abdul Halim Mohamed Yatim, “Non-sinusoidal PWM method for cascaded multilevel inverter”, Telkomnika, 2012;10 (4), pp. 670-679. (SCOPUS Indexed Publication)   


  1. Kashif Ishaque, Zainal Salam, Hamed Taheri, “Simple, fast and accurate two-diode model for photovoltaic modules”, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, Vol. 95, Issue 2 (2011), pp. 586– 594, ISSN: 0927-0248, DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2010.09.023. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  2. Kashif Ishaque, Zainal Salam, Syafaruddin, ”A comprehensive MATLAB Simulink PV system simulator with partial shading capability based on two-diode model”, Solar Energy, Vol. 85, Issue 9 (2011),  pp. 2217-2227, ISSN: 0038-092X, DOI: 10.1016/j.solener.2011.06.008. (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  3. Kashif Ishaque, Zainal Salam, “An improved modeling method to determine the model parameters of photovoltaic (PV) modules using differential evolution (DE)”, Solar Energy, Vol. 85, Issue 9 (2011), pp. 2349-2359, ISSN: 0038-092X, DOI: 10.1016/j.solener.2011.06.025. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  4. Kashif Ishaque, Zainal Salam, Hamed Taheri, Amir Shamsudin, “A critical evaluation of EA computational methods for Photovoltaic cell parameter extraction based on two diode model”, Solar Energy, Vol. 85, Issue 9 (2011), pp. 1768-1779, ISSN: 0038-092X, DOI: 10.1016/j.solener.2011.04.015. (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  5. Kashif Ishaque, Zainal Salam, Hamed Taheri, Syafaruddin, “Modeling and simulation of photovoltaic (PV) system during partial shading based on a two-diode model”, Simulation Modeling Practice and Theory, Vol. 19, Issue 7 (2011), pp. 1613–1626, ISSN: 1569-190X, DOI: 10.1016/j.simpat.2011.04.005. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  6. Amin Mirzaei, Awang Jusoh, Zainal Salam, Ehsan Adib, Hosein Farzanehfard, “Analysis and design of a high efficiency bidirectional DC–DC converter for battery and ultracapacitor applications”, Simulation Modeling Practice and Theory, Vol. 19, Issue 7 (2011), pp. 1651– 1667, ISSN: 1569-190X, DOI: 10.1016/j.simpat.2011.04.007. (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  7. Z. Salam and A. Jusoh, “Bidirectional high-frequency link inverter with regenerative snubber and deadbeat control”, International Journal of Electronics, Vol. 98, No. 3 (2011), pp. 339– 355, ISSN: 0020-7217, DOI: 10.1080/00207217.2010.538904. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  8. Amin Mirzaei, Hosein Farzanehfard, Ehsan Adib, Awang Jusoh, and Zainal Salam, “ A Fully Soft Switched Two Quadrant Bidirectional Soft Switching Converter for Ultra Capacitor Interface Circuits,Journal of Power Electronics, Vol. 11, No. 1, January 2011, pp. 1-9, ISSN: 1598-2092, DOI: 10.6113/JPE.2011.11.1.001. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  9. K. Ishaque, S.S.Abdullah, S.M.Ayob, Z. Salam, “A simplified approach to design fuzzy logic controller for an underwater vehicle”, Ocean Engineering, Vol. 38, No. 1, January 2011, pp. 271–284, ISSN: 0029-8018, DOI: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2010.10.017. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  10. Zainal Salam, Fazel Taeed, and Shahrin Md. Ayob, “Design and Implementation of a Single Input Fuzzy Logic Controller for Boost Converters”, Journal of Power Electronics, Vol. 11, No. 4, July 2011, pp. 542-550, ISSN: 1598-2092, DOI: 10.6113/JPE.2011.11.4.542. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  11. Zainal Salam, Nge Chee Lim and Shahrin Md. Ayob, “Analysis and Design of a Bidirectional Cycloconverter-type High Frequency Link Inverter with Natural Commutation Phase Angle Control”,Journal of Power Electronics, Vol. 11, No. 5, September 2011, pp. 677-687, ISSN: 1598-2092, DOI: 10.6113/JPE.2011.11.5.677. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  12. Ishaque K., Salam Z., Taheri H., “Accurate MATLAB Simulink PV System Simulator Based on a Two-Diode Model”, Journal of Power Electronics, Vol. 11, No. 2, March 2011, pp. 179-187, ISSN: 1598-2092, DOI: 10.6113/JPE.2011.11.2.179. (ISI Indexed Publication) 


  1. K. Ishaque, S.S Abdullah, S.M. Ayob, and Z. Salam, “Single Input Fuzzy Logic Controller for Unmanned Underwater Vehicle”, Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, Vol. 59, No.1, July 2010, pp. 87-100, ISSN: 0921-0296, DOI: 10.1007/s10846-010-9395-x. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  2. Z. Salam, “A simple On-line Harmonics Elimination PWM Algorithm for a Three-phase Voltage Source Inverter Based on Quadratic Curve Fittings”, The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, COMPEL, Vol. 29, No. 3 (2010), pp. 727-744, ISSN: 0332-1649, DOI: 10.1108/03321641011028279. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  3. Shahrin Md. Ayob, Zainal Salam, and Naziha Ahmad Azli, “A New Optimum Design for a Single Input Fuzzy Controller Applied to DC to AC Converters”, Journal of Power Electronics, Vol. 10, No. 3, May 2010, pp. 306-312, ISSN: 1598-2092, DOI: 10.6113/JPE.2010.10.3.306. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  4. Salam Z., “An On-line Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation Scheme for Voltage Source Inverter”, Journal of Power Electronics, Vol. 10, No. 1, January 2010, pp. 43-51, ISSN: 1598-2092, DOI: 10.6113/JPE.2010.10.1.043. (ISI Indexed Publication)
  5. Z. Salam, “A Simple On-line Selective Harmonics Elimination Pulse Width Modulation Scheme for Voltage Source Inverter”, Australian Journal of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 2 (2010), pp. 133-145. (SCOPUS Indexed Publication) 
  6.  Z. Salam, C.L. Nge,  “Natural Commutation Technique to Reduce Voltage Surges and Switching Losses in a Cycloconverter-type High Frequency Link Inverter”, Australian Journal of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 2 (2010), pp. 153-163, ISSN: 1448-837X. (SCOPUS Indexed Publication)    
  7. AM Noghlbary, H. Frazanehfard, E. Adib, A.Jusoh and Z. Salam, “Analysis and design of a fully soft-switched buck boost converter for ultra-capacitor and battery combined interface circuit”, Australian Journal of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 2 (2010), pp. 183-192, ISSN: 1448-837X. (SCOPUS Indexed Publication) 
  8. S.M. Ayob, N.A.Azli, Z. Salam, “A simple and Fast PI-Fuzzy Controller for PWM DC/AC Converter”,Journal of Control and Intelligent System, Vol. 38, No. 3 (2010), pp 148-155, ISSN: 1480-1752, DOI: 10.2316/Journal.201.2010.3.201-2113. (SCOPUS Indexed Publication) 
  9. Salam Z., “A Fast and Efficient On-Line Harmonics Elimination Pulse Width Modulation for Voltage Source Inverter Using Polynomials Curve Fittings”, International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 23, No. 1, Feb 2010, pp. 53-68, ISSN: 1728144X. (SCOPUS Indexed Publication)     


  1. Shahrin Md. Ayob, Naziha Ahmad Azli, Zainal Salam, “PWM DC-AC Converter Regulation Using a Multi-Loop Single Input Fuzzy PI Controller”, Journal of Power Electronics, Vol. 9, No. 1, January 2009, pp. 124-131, ISSN: 1598-2092. (ISI Indexed Publication) 
  2. Zainal Salam, “Bidirectional High-Frequency Link Inverter with Deadbeat Control”, Journal of Power Electronics, Vol. 9, No. 5, Sept 2009, pp. 726-735, ISSN: 1598-2092, DOI: 10.1080/00207217.2010.538904. (ISI Indexed Publication) 


  1. S.M. Ayob, N.A. Azli and Z. Salam, “Single Input PI-Fuzzy Controller for Single Phase Inverter System”,International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), Vol. 3, No. 3, May-June 2008, pp. 418-425, ISSN: 1827-6660. (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  2. S.M. Ayob, N.A. Azli and Z. Salam, “Single Input PI-Fuzzy Controller for Single Phase Inverter System”, International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), Vol. 3. No.3, May-June 2008, pp. 418-425. (SCOPUS Indexed Publication)
  3. Zainal Salam, Tan Perng Cheng and Awang Jusoh, “ A hybrid active power filter connected to a photovoltaic array”, Journal – the Institution of Engineers, Malaysia, Vol. 69, No. 1, March 2008, pp 45-51. (Non-Indexed Publication)    
  4. Zainal Salam and Junaidi Aziz, “Derivation of Switching Angles of the Cascaded Multilevel Voltage Source Inverter Subjected to a New Pulse Width Modulation Scheme “, Journal – the Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (2008). (Non-Indexed Publication)   
  5. Salam Z., “A simple On-line Harmonics Elimination PWM Algorithm for a Three-phase Voltage”, Journal – the Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (2008). (Non-Indexed Publication)          
  1. Zainal Salam, Tan Perng Cheng, Awang Jusoh, “Review of active power filter technologies”, Journal-the Institution of Engineers, Malaysia, Vol. 68. No. 2, June 2007, pp. 38-46. (Non-Indexed Publication)    
  2. Zainal Salam, Toh Leong Soon, Mohd. Zulkifli Ramli, “An improved controller design for high frequency link inverter using deadbeat method”, Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi, Vol. 1 No.1, June 2007 pp 17-36. (Non-Indexed Publication)    
  3. Zainal Salam, Tan Perng Cheng, Awang Jusoh, “Application of extension p-q theorem to construct the compensation current reference of a single-phase two-wired hybrid active filter” Jurnal  Sains dan Teknologi, Vol. 1 No.1, June 2007 pp 95-113. (Non-Indexed Publication)    
  1. Z. Salam, S. M. Ayob, L. S. Toh, “A Compact High-Frequency Link Inverter for UPS Application”,International Review of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 3, August 2006, pp. 381-390, ISSN: 1827-6660. (SCOPUS Indexed Publication)
  2. Awang Jusoh, Zainal Salam, “Analysis and Control of the Unloaded Bi-Directional DC/DC Converter to Perform an Active Damping Function” Jurnal Teknologi, No. 44(D), Jun 2006, pp. 65-84, eISSN: 2180-3722, DOI: 10.11113/jt.v44.376. (SCOPUS Indexed Publication)
  3. Z. Salam, J. Aziz, S.S. Ahmed, Digital implementation of a new switching scheme for modular structured multilevel voltage source inverter, Journal of Energy and Environment, Vol. 5, May 2006, pp. 57-76, ISSN 1563-1362. (Non-Indexed Publication)   
  4.  Zainal Salam, Nge Chee Lim, Toh Leong Soon and Mohd. Zulkiflli Ramli, “Cycloconverter-type high frequency link inverter for photovoltaic application”, Journal-The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia, Vol.67, No.1, March, 2006, pp 49-56. (Non-Indexed Publication)    
  5. MM Yaacob, AB Darus, Z. Salam and HB Ahmad, “A multipulse impulse generator (MIGE), Elektrika-Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 8, No.1,June 2006, pp.68-74. (Non-Indexed Publication)   
  6. Zainal Salam, Toh Leong Soon, Mohd Zulkifli Ramli. “On the hardware implementation of a novel high frequency link inverter”, Elektrika-Journal of Electrical Engineering, June 2006, Volume 8,  No. 1, pp. 45-57. (Non-Indexed Publication)         
  7. Zainal Salam, Toh Leong Soon and Mohd. Zulkifli Ramli, “Application of Decoupling Networks in Deadbeat Controller for High-Frequency Link Inverter”, Journal the Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Jurnal IEM), Vol. 67. No. 3, Sept 2006, pp. 38-46. (Non-Indexed Publication)     
  8. Awang Jusoh, Zainal Salam and Lim Aik Jin, “Analysis, Design and Simulation of RC Passive Damping Network in a Simple Distributed DC Power System using PSpice”, Elektrika-Journal of Electrical Engineering, Volume 9,  No. 1, pp. 14-18, Dec 2006, pp. 14-18. (Non-Indexed Publication)     
  9. Zainal Salam, Tan Perng Cheng, Awang Jusoh, “Harmonics mitigation using active power filter: A technological review”, Elektrika-Journal of Electrical Engineering, Volume 9,  No. 1, Dec 2006, pp. 14-18. (Non-Indexed Publication)     
  10. Zainal Salam, Toh Leong Soon and Mohd. Zulkifli Ramli, “On the hardware implementation of a novel high frequency link inverter”, Elektrika-Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 8, No.1, June 2006, pp.45 – 57. (Non-Indexed Publication)   


  1. Zainal Salam and Azidin Mohamad Razali, “A Closed-form Solution for the Harmonics of a Five Level Cascaded Inverter with the Single Carrier Modulation: The Double Integral Fourier Series Approach”, Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi, Vol. 3, No.1, July 2005, pp. 1-21. ISSN 18231698. (Non-Indexed Publication)    
  2. Salam Zainal, Aziz, Junaidi, “Digital Implementation of a new PWM Switching Scheme for Cascaded Multilevel Voltage Source Inverter”, Elektrika-Journal of Electrical Engineering, Dec. 2005, pp. 36-46. (Non-Indexed Publication)    


  1. J. A. Aziz  and Z. Salam,  “A New Pulse-width modulation (PWM) Scheme for Modular Structured Multilevel Voltage Source Inverter”, International Journal of Electronics, Vol. 91, No. 4, April 2004, pp. 211 – 226, ISSN: 0020-7217, DOI: 10.1080/00207210410001675644. (ISI Indexed Publication)  
  2. Zainal Salam, Zulkifli Ramli, “A Bidirectional UPS Inverter Utilising High-Frequency Centertapped Transformer”, Jurnal Teknologi, No. 40(D), June 2004, pp. 59-76, ISSN: 0127-9696, DOI: 10.11113/jt.v40.416. (SCOPUS Indexed Publication)  
  1. Aziz, J.A, Salam, Z., “Harmonics Analysis of a Five-Level Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Using a New Modulation Scheme”, Jurnal Teknologi, 40(D), August 2003, pp.59-76. (SCOPUS Indexed Publication)  
  1. Zainal Salam and Chew Tit Lynn, “A New Near Optimal Harmonics Elimination PWM Algorithm for AC Traction Drives”, Jurnal Teknologi, No. 36(D), June 2002, pp. 111-128, eISSN: 2180-3722, DOI: 10.11113/jt.v36.578. (SCOPUS Indexed Publication)
  2. Badaruddin Muhammad, Zainal Salam, Abdul Halim Mohd Yatim, Abu Khairi A’ain, “Teknik Pengecasan Baru Untuk Bateri Alkali Cas Semula (RAMÔ), Techniques to charge the Rechargeable Alkaline-Manganese Battery-RAM Ô “, Jurnal Teknologi, 36(D), June 2002, pp. 83-98. (SCOPUS Indexed Publication) 
  1. Zainal Salam, Khosru Mohammad Salim: “Generation of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Signals for Three-phase Inverter Using a Single-chip Micro Controller, Jurnal Teknologi, No. 34(D), June 2001, pp. 1-12, ISSN: 0127-9696. (SCOPUS Indexed Publication) 
  1. Zainal Salam, Khosru Mohammad Salim, Faridah Taha:  “Design and Development of a Three-phase, 5kW Power Conditioning Unit for Fuel Cell System”, Journal the Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Jurnal IEM), Vol. 61, No. 2, June 2000, pp 71-77. (Non-Indexed Publication)    
  1. Zainal Salam,“On the Practical Implementation of the Volt-Second Equalization Method to Compensate for the Low-frequency Beat Current in Traction Inverter Drives”,  Elektrika- Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 1. No.2, March 1999, pp 8-14. (Non-Indexed Publication)    
  2. Zainal Salam, “Control of a Single-phase PWM Rectifier Using the Fixed-band Hysteresis Controller”, Elektrika- Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 2. No.2, Sept. 1999, pp. 6-11. (Non-Indexed Publication)